The Leisure Media Company Ltd
The Leisure Media Company Ltd
The Leisure Media Company Ltd

Profile

Michael Pawlyn

Exploration architects have built a global reputation for their work in biomimicry. Founder Michael Pawlyn tells Rhianon Howells why biology and architecture make great bedfellows


As one of the world’s leading biomimetic architects, Michael Pawlyn has always been as passionate about the natural environment as he is about the built. But it wasn’t until he joined Grimshaw Architects in 1997 that he realised he could combine both loves in his work.

Pawlyn was part of the core team responsible for the Eden Project in Cornwall, UK; he led the design of warm temperate and humid tropics biomes, helping to radically reinvent the principles of horticultural architecture and creating a groundbreaking, world-class visitor attraction in the process.

In 2007, he left Grimshaw to set up his own firm, Exploration, a group of architects, designers and researchers who specialise in design innovation and strategy which is specifically focused on biomimicry.

Pawlyn and his team are casting their net wide, in the belief that this kind of design has the potential to benefit all areas of life. Projects range from studies for a biomimetic office building to the Sahara Forest Project – a pioneering attempt to grow vegetation and create green jobs in desert regions – that’s already proven successful in a pilot in Qatar. Looking ahead, Pawlyn believes there’s great potential to apply the principles of biomimicry to leisure architecture, particularly in the area of mixed-use schemes.

What sets your work apart?
There aren’t many architectural practices doing what we do, although I’m sure that’ll change. There are a few architects in colleges doing work on biomimicry, but the practices tend to focus more on biomorphic architecture.

Biomimicry is about engaging with the way functions are delivered in biology and translating that into solutions that meet human needs, whereas biomorphism is more about looking to nature as a source of original forms. Some of Frank Lloyd Wright’s buildings or the TWA terminal by Eero Saarinen are good examples, and they can be very enjoyable buildings. It’s worth making the distinction, though, because I feel strongly that what we need over the next few decades is a functional revolution.

How does biomimicry in architecture differ from other sustainable approaches?
The sustainability paradigm has often been about mitigation – how to make things less bad. In their book Cradle to Cradle, William McDonough and Michael Braungart argue that we need to get beyond that: it’s not enough to produce solutions that are less bad, we need models that are 100 per cent good.

In the case of biomimicry, I think it’s possible to move to a new paradigm, which is about restorative design. So while conventional human-made systems are generally extractive, linear, disconnected, wasteful and reliant on fossil fuels, biomimicry is about creating densely interconnected, zero-waste systems that rely on solar energy in a way that is actually restorative to the environment.

How much potential is there to apply the principles of biomimicry to leisure buildings?
The potential definitely exists to use biomimicry to solve functional challenges but at the same time to deliver secondary benefits. A good example is the Las Palmas Water Theatre in the Canary Islands, which I worked on at Grimshaw and which is actually a desalination plant. The key biomimicry idea came from the Namibian fog-basking beetle: you’ve got a cool surface, humid air passes over it and condensation forms. We tried to maximise that effect using the sunny conditions, steady wind direction and cold seawater that are abundant in the Canaries. That drove the form of the building, but the evaporators and condensers were arranged in such a way that they created a backdrop for the creation of an outdoor amphitheatre.

The Sahara Forest Project [a scheme that combines solar power technology and desert revegetation techniques with seawater-cooled greenhouses which are also inspired by the Namibian fog-basking beetle] also has the potential to work very well as part of a mixed-use leisure resort.

Resorts have normal infrastructural demands in terms of energy, water, food and waste, so if we’re going to create sustainable destinations we have to find ways of meeting those needs in the most sustainable way. If we had a Sahara Forest Project near a leisure scheme, we could deliver zero-carbon food and potentially create all the energy and water needed, at the same time as turning a barren environment into a more bio-diverse and micro-climatically cooler environment.

Are you working on any leisure-related projects at the moment?
We’ve done a seed proposal for a sustainable scheme in the Amazon. If it goes forward, it will be a boutique hotel. It’s completely off-grid, so we’ll have to propose ways in which it can be self-sufficient in water and energy and completely closed-loop in terms of its waste processes. And as far as possible the buildings will be made of locally available materials.

What role did biomimicry play in the Eden Project?
It was used at pretty much every stage of the design process. One of the challenges was that the site was still being quarried and we didn’t have predictable final ground levels. So we conceived of the building as being composed of bubbles; we studied their geometry and developed a bubble model that fitted into that 3D terrain. The next stage was thinking about how those spherical surfaces could be structured most efficiently. For that, we looked at examples in biology such as pollen grains, radiolaria and carbon molecules, which demonstrated that the most efficient way of structuring a spherical surface was with pentagons or hexagons.

We then wanted to maximise the size of those hexagons, to save steel and to maximise light, which meant finding an alternative to glass. In nature, there are some very efficient forms made out of pressurised membranes and that led us to ETFE, which is a high-strength polymer that’s put together in three layers then inflated to give it rigidity. We pushed the material further than ever before, and eventually we were able to produce inflated ‘pillows’ of up to 75sq m in size.

With safety glass you’re limited to 10sq m; not only were some of these hexagons seven times that size, but they were also 1 per cent of the weight of double-glazing. That delivered a huge advantage in terms of steel use.

When designing the dome intersections posed a challenge, we resolved it by looking at the structure of dragonfly wings.

Why is it important the buildings we spend our leisure time in are well designed?
When people are in leisure mode, they’re often very receptive to new ideas, and there’s a real chance if someone sees something innovative when they’re on holiday, they will think about how to apply that when they go back to their work environment.

I also think it’s really important to find ways to reconnect with nature and help people to understand just how much we depend on nature for our future quality of life: our materials, medicines and foods. And that’s something that you can often do on a leisure scheme that you wouldn’t be able to do on, say, a dense urban site.

What single opportunity or experience has most defined your career?
Working on the Eden Project was a great break for me. It made me realise the three things I was passionate about as a teenager – design, biology and the environment – could be brought together in the congruent pursuit of sustainable architecture inspired by biology, and I hadn’t realised that before. Also it showed me how you can take a fairly wild idea and, by following a thorough process, managing innovation and getting the right people together, turn it into something real.

What’s your favourite leisure building?
A real hero of mine is the Swiss-Italian engineer Pier Luigi Nervi, who worked on some really stunning buildings, including a small sports stadium called the Palazzetto Dello Sport, which was built for the summer Olympic Games in Rome in 1960 and designed by architect Annibale Vitellozzi. The structure is based pretty closely on giant Amazon water lilies and there’s a nice parallel between the way Nervi works and the process of evolution, in that he won many of his projects in competition by being lighter and more efficient, and therefore cheaper, than his competitors.

Are there any leisure buildings that you dislike?
I’d be critical of the Bird’s Nest Stadium in Beijing by Herzog and de Meuron. In some ways it’s stunning, it looks awesome, but it’s incredibly resource-intensive. Although on a certain level it claims to be inspired by birds’ nests, it actually takes none of their ingenious aspects. You could have used those examples to create a highly resource-efficient structure, but it isn’t resource-efficient at all.

What are the biggest threats facing your discipline?
The fossil fuel industries. They’ve driven us towards the brink of the abyss and now they’re putting their foot on the accelerator. And it makes me angry, because there are so many solutions that architects such as myself and others have proposed over the last 20 years, but they don’t get adopted simply because of the skewed way we look at energy. Fossil fuel energy is way too cheap because it externalises all the main damage costs and treats the atmosphere as a dump. If we were to internalise the full costs of fossil fuels and many other materials, it would really make the economic case for the kind of solutions we’re proposing.

What would you like to be remembered for?
Building schemes that made a positive difference to people’s lives and the environment.

Author

Rhianon Howells is a business journalist with more than 15 years’ industry experience

Gallery
Click on an image to open the image gallery
company profile
Company profile: Polin Waterparks
Design, engineering, manufacturing, installation of waterslides, waterparks and waterplay attractions. Polin has perfected hundreds of exclusive and successful projects all around the world: outdoor parks, indoor parks and hotel/resort packages, regardless of the project’s size.
Try cladmag for free!
Sign up with CLAD to receive our regular ezine, instant news alerts, free digital subscriptions to CLADweek, CLADmag and CLADbook and to request a free sample of the next issue of CLADmag.
sign up
features
A trust has been established to ensure that arts and sustainability are a protected part of the Serenbe culture
"Residents share stories with me of how Serenbe has changed their lives for the better and they are healthier and happier - Steve Nygren"

The original wellness community at Serenbe is expanding, with a new hamlet dedicated to health. Jane Kitchen paid a visit

Taikoo Place has been designed to offer a calm haven within the city
Mary Bowman studied at the University of Virginia and the Architectural Association
"Marina One was quite special in the degree of integration between the landscaping and architecture "

The Gustafson Porter + Bowman partner on the landscape projects changing the face of our cities

Catalogue Gallery
Click on a catalogue to view it online
To advertise in our catalogue gallery: call +44(0)1462 431385
features
CLAD people: Jean Nouvel
Jean Nouvel Architect
"It has spaces inside that exist nowhere else"

On the National Museum of Qatar

CLAD people: Vincent Callebaut
"It’s about tracing the evolution of thermal practices"

Eco architect Vincent Callebaut has won a competition to redesign ancient thermal baths in the Savoyard town of Aix-les-Bains, France

The Healthy New Towns have bike trails, bike lockers and cycle to school routes
"The Healthy New Towns initiative aims to design out ‘obesogenic environments’ and design in health and wellbeing"

The UK government is building 10 new towns based on health, with wellbeing incorporated from the ground up. Stu Robarts investigates

features
Fu has a masters in architecture from Cambridge University
"I wanted to go deeper than the stereotypical concept of lanterns, junks and temples"

Drawing on his childhood memories for the St Regis Hong Kong

Moreau Kusunoki’s design features a façade made from charred wood, a method of treating wood which is traditional in both Finland and Japan
Nicolas Moreau & Hiroko Kusunoki
"With big projects like this one, there’s always going to be controversy. Of course people are concerned"

The shock winners of the competition to design the Guggenheim Helsinki have kept a low profile – until now. Magali Robathan goes to Paris to meet them

cladkit product news
Mather & Co and ITV unite to create Coronation Street Experience
Mather & Co has transformed the visitor centre into the ultimate haven for ardent Coronation Street viewers
Magali Robathan
Experience designers, Mather & Co, have orchestrated a remarkable collaboration with ITV to unveil the new Coronation Street Experience, a ...
Codelocks develops new glass door smart lock
The new lock model allows facilities and building managers to create and manage access via an app or online portal
Megan Whitby
Codelocks has launched its first glass door smart lock to bring intelligent access control to modern spa, leisure, fitness and ...
Alberto Apostoli and Newform collaborate to launch the A.Zeta showerhead
The showerhead offers two modes; rainfall or waterfall
Megan Whitby
Italian architect Alberto Apostoli has renewed his partnership with Newform – an Italian wellness company – and designed A.Zeta. A.Zeta ...
cladkit product news
CSI Design Expo Americas 2024 announces new Attractions & Entertainment Technology Zone
The event will allow buyers and suppliers to meet
Magali Robathan
Cruise Ship Interiors (CSI) invites cruise lines, shipyards, design studios, outfitters, and suppliers to take part in CSI Design Expo ...
Koto Design introduces wood-fired hot tub
Koto is known for crafting modular, energy-neutral cabins and homes
Katie Barnes
A striking wood-fired hot tub has been unveiled by Koto, an architecture and design studio which has a passion for ...
Siminetti unveils iridescent decorative panelling range inspired by plants
The Clematis design
Megan Whitby
The Botanicals is Siminetti’s newest Mother of Pearl decorative panelling collection, inspired by the distinctive patterns found in botany and ...
cladkit product news
Eco Resort Network conference to convene in Mauritius this May
The event will be hosted in the Mauritius in 2024
Megan Whitby
Hospitality industry event Eco Resort Network is set to take place at the Ravenala Attitude Hotel, Turtle Bay, Mauritius, from ...
Ojmar introduces battery-free electronic locker to cut carbon footprints in health clubs and spas
Ojmar says the batteryless lock is easy to install and features a user-friendly interface
Megan Whitby
Smart lock manufacturer Ojmar has released the OTS20 Batteryless – the first battery-free electronic locker lock on the market. The ...
Alberto Apostoli designs tech-forward Wellness Therapy furniture collection for Varaschin
The furniture collection draws on absolute geometries, pure lines, neutral colours and strong references to nature
Megan Whitby
Furniture manufacturer Varaschin has unveiled the new Wellness Therapy range, designed by Italian spa and wellness architect and designer Alberto ...
The Leisure Media Company Ltd
The Leisure Media Company Ltd